If you think that tyres are used to help move your car, then you will be moved when you know how tyres are built.

They’re more than just that and they can be just like humans too. For instance, if you take care of your tyres well, they can keep you safe on the road but if you can’t maintain them properly, then they’ll pose a threat to us.

They may not be as complicated like us but how they’re brought into this world is an eye-opener. Tyre manufacturing requires different stages with different processes.

Part 1: The preparation and mixing of raw materials

This is the root stage of tyre manufacturing. Different types of materials are prepared and assembled in order to build tyres. After all, big things come from small packages.

1.Raw materials

The building blocks of tyres may be rubber but do you know that there are other materials used in manufacturing tyres as well as tyre rubbers?

As a matter fact, the rubbers used on your tyres are divided into natural rubber and synthetic rubber. Natural rubber is collected from the latex of the rubber trees while synthetic rubber is formed from monomers; Isoprene, Butadiene and Styrene-Butadiene.

To ensure the tyres become longer-lasting without degradation, antioxidants are added to the rubber. They function to protect the tyres from oxygen and ozone and prevent the chain destruction of rubber.

If you wonder why your tyres are black, it is due to the major carbon black pigment. It acts as a filler, which enhances the abrasion resistance and tyre rubber tensile strength. Although silica is also used as a filler, carbon black is mostly used and also added into it.

2.Blending / Mixing of the materials

A batch of 200 kg of rubber components is broken down and mixed with other materials using a mixer, a machine made up of a mixing chamber that consists of rotors.

The process usually takes less than three to five minutes and it is mixed in temperatures as high as 160 to 170 degrees Celsius.


The batch is discarded from the mixer once it’s done and sent through a series of machines in order to form a slap. To make sure the rubber is regular, this milling process is conducted more than two to three times.

The slap is a continuous sheet that will be sent for calendering.

Part 2: Inserting the tyre components

In order to support your heavy vehicle and the extra weight, which is the heavy loads, your tyres need to have materials that are not strong and firm. The materials used for producing these components are cotton, aramid, fiberglass, steel, polyester and rayon.

1.Preparing the components

The two types of components used to support the tyres are formed into cords; either fabric or steel cord.

A fabric cord is created from a twisted warn with two or more spools added. The temperature, humidity and tension influences the fabric cord therefore they have to be monitored under these factors before they arrive at the factory. The quality of the fabric cord is based upon its strength, stretch, shrinkage and elasticity.

A steel cord is produced from a steel rod with high-carbon content. Similar to fabric cords, steel cords need to be monitored under temperature and humidity conditions to maintain the steel wire to rubber bonding properties. The quality of the steel cord is based upon stiffness, strength and elongation.


Do not mistake the calender for a calendar. The calender is actually a machine that has three or more chrome-plated steel rolls which move in opposite directions and the rubber compounds are applied to the cords.

The calendering process is to secure the bonding of either steel or fabric to the rubber.

Part 3: Tyre building

1.Tyre building machine

All the components are formed to produce a green tyre by using a machine and this process takes two stages.

The first stages includes having the innerliner wrapped around the center of the machine while two body plys are wrapped on top of each other.

Then the next stage would be the building process in which nylon belts, belts and the tyre tread are applied using another machine.

The green tyre may look like a complete tyre but it needs to go through one more process which is curing.


In order for the tyre rubber to become soft and elastic, it needs to undergo vulcanisation or curing.

During this stage, the green tyre is placed into a large mold, which is shaped like a gigantic metal clam. The steam then heats it up to 280 degrees celsius then it is left to cool afterwards.

The additives that are added into the tyres in the earlier stage such as zinc oxide, stearic acid, magnesium oxide and amine soaps are activators. These activators act as catalyst to shorten the period of the green tyre curing process from several hours to just a few minutes.

Part 4: The final stages

1.Quality control

The tyre company chemists need to make some random tests of the raw materials before the tyres are ready to be released to the market and the suppliers. Samples of rubber are constantly tested for their tensile strength and density during the batch mixing process.

To allow plant managers to trace batches of rubber and specific tyre components, each tyre assembler is responsible for the batch mixing process.


Some newly manufactured tyres are sliced open to check for air pockets. To determine puncture resistance, the rest of the tyres are pressed down on metal studs. There are some tyres tested for mileage and other performance characteristics by being spun rapidly and forced down.

Internal inspection with the use of an X-Ray is to determine whether there are any defects. If a there are any, then the manufacturing engineers review the specific steps to determine how the flaw formed on tyre component assembly.

If not,the tyre is good to go. Make sure you download the MisterTyre app today to get your very own set of tyres for your car. You can do this by heading over to the Google Playstore or the Apple ITunes.